Agronomic, physicochemical, nutritional characterization and processing of a Colombian variety of Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum).

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Cubio” or Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) is considered a promissory crop from the Andes region. Knowledge of its consumption, uses and benefits for new generations must be increased. This tuber (root) has high yields and low inputs for cultivation, resists frost, contains minerals such as iron, zinc, manganese, among others; protein, fiber, carbohydrates and high levels of vitamin C. However, it acceptance in the market is low. It is necessary to characterize it to take advantage of its benefits. For this research, the type white black-eye mashua was used. The code BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie) was applied in order to identify the product phenologically. Agronomic aspects such as planting, treatments for fertilization (without fertilization, with conventional fertilization, conventional more organic fertilization, organic fertilization), irrigation, propagation and harvesting were handled by the research group. The characterization of the tuber was done by physical, textural, physicochemical and nutritional tests. In addition, flour was obtained and characterized, which was added into a corn flour and cheese mix to prepare bread made. Plants presented appropriate changes in volume, weight-form and structure with respect to the environmental conditions of temperature, radiation, precipitation, evaporation, among others. Results showed that mashua behaved very well to the treatment with application of organic fertilizers. It was observed that fertilization treatments affected the concentrations of starch, fiber and vitamin C; however, they did not affect the flour production. With respect to this product, in the ash content determination a high value of 5-6% was present, due to the high content of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. The content of vitamin C showed a lower value due to high temperature used during the dehydration process, however cubio’s flour is an ideal substitute for a baking flour due to its high nutritional content.