EFFECT OF LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON PREVENTION OF EXCESSIVE WEIGHT GAIN IN PREGNANCY
Objective: Leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy has been associated with maternal-child benefits, including gestational weight gain control. The present analysis describes the effect of leisure-time physical activity on excessive gestational weight gain. Methods: Prospective cohort study in the urban area of Cruzeiro do Sul, Western Brazilian Amazon, with data for 458 pregnant women. Women up to 20 weeks of pregnancy, attending the prenatal care at primary health units, were enrolled in this study. Our main exposure variable was “150 minutes per week or more of leisure-time physical activity in the second trimester (no/yes)”. The outcome was “excessive gestational weight gain between second and third trimesters (yes/no, according to the Institute of Medicine 2009 guidelines)”. Associations between leisure-time physical activity and excessive weight gain were estimated using multiple Poisson regression models adjusted for schooling (<9 years/≥9 years), receiving benefits from the Bolsa Família Program (yes/no); primigravida (yes/no), ultraprocessed food consumption (monthly/weekly/daily). Data analysis was performed in Stata 14.0, P<0.05. Results: Overall, 59.2% of pregnant women had excessive weight gain. Only 4.4% of women with excessive weight gain achieved 150 minutes per week of leisure-time physical activity while 10.7% of pregnant women with adequate or insufficient weight gain achieved the physical activity recommendation. In fully adjusted models, 150 minutes of leisure-time physical activity in the second trimester was negatively associated with excessive gestational weight gain [Prevalence Ratio (95%CI)=0.64 (0.41, 0.99)]. Conclusion: Women who achieved 150 minutes per week of leisure-time physical activity were at lower risk for excessive weight gain during pregnancy.