Proteus mirabilis isolated from chicken meat share clonal relationship and same variant of blaESBL, blaAmpC and fosA3 with strains causing community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI-CA)

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Recently, several studies have developed solid arguments that chicken meat can be an important source of dissemination of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in humans. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the prevalence of Proteus mirabilis producing blaESBL, blaAmpC and fosA3 in chicken meat sold in the city of Londrina - PR (n=200) and Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections (UTI-CA) (n=200), both geographically and temporally compatible. In addition, the clonal relationship of blaESBL and blaAmpC producing strains was evaluated by the Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) technique. For this, all 400 isolates were submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the detection of blaESBL (CTX-M-1, 2, 8, 9 and 25), main families of plasmidial blaAmpC (ACC, CIT, DHA, EBC, FOX and MOX) and the fosA3 gene, responsible for conferring resistance to fosfomycin. Blagenes PCR products were submitted to Sanger sequencing to identify the variant. Of the 200 chicken meat strains, 47 (23.5%) were blaESBL producers, being 33 (70.2%) blaCTX-M-65 and 14 (29.8%) blaCTX-M-2, while in UTI-CA were found 19 blaESBL-producing strains, 14 (73.7%) blaCTX-M-65 and 5 (26.3%) blaCTX-M-2. Regarding blaAmpC, only blaCMY-2 was detected in both chicken meat (n=26/13%) and UTI-CA (n=9/4.5%) strains, while the fosA3 gene was also detected in meat of chicken (n=29/14.5%) and UTI-CA (n=11/5.5%). Odds ratio (OR) test revealed that chicken meat has more strains producing blaESBL (OR: 3.89; CI: 2.35-6.45/p < 0.05), blaCMY-2 (OR: 5.33; CI: 2.5-11.34/p < 0.001) and fosA3 (OR: 5.74; CI: 2.8-11.75/p < 0.05) than UTI-CA strains. Analysis of the clonal relationship showed five clusters with >90% similarity that housed both chicken meat and UTI-CA strains, highlighting two of these clusters that housed chicken meat and UTI-CA strains with 100% similarity. The fact that chicken meat has significantly more blaESBL, blaAmpC and fosA3 producing strains reveals the intense use of antimicrobials in poultry farming, which directly contributes to the selection and dissemination of multiresistant P. mirabilis in the community, which can be consumed with the meat, colonize the gastrointestinal tract and cause UTI-CA. Furthermore, our study suggests that the use of fosfomycin should be banned in poultry, since the fosA3 gene is the main mechanism of resistance to this antimicrobial, which has been one of the most prescribed for the treatment of UTI-CA in several countries, including Brazil.

  • 1 Departamento de Microbiologia / Centro de Ciências Biológicas / Universidade Estadual de Londrina
  • 2 Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto
  • 3 Centro de Ciências Biológicas / Universidade Estadual de Londrina
  • 4 Universidade Estadual de Londrina
  • Food Microbiology
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