Introduction: HPV is the most prevalent etiological agent of infections of the anogenital tract. More than 200 types of HPV have been identified and classified as high and low oncogenic risk. HPV is detected in 99.7% of cases of cervical cancer and HPV genotypes 16 and 18 are detected in 60-80% of cases. However, there are differences in the prevalence of HPV infection and in the distribution of genotypes according to the geographic region and the characteristics of the studied population. The detection and genotyping of HPV are essential to assess the oncogenic potential of the virus and the epidemiology of the infection worldwide, as well as the effectiveness of the vaccine in the studied population. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of HPV infection and the distribution of genotypes in women treated at a preventive gynecology clinic in Goiânia. Methodology: Participants included in the gynecology outpatient clinic of the Integrated Health Care Center (CAIS) of Chácara do Governador, in Goiânia-GO, who agreed to participate in the research and were submitted to the collection of cervical-vaginal specimen. Data were collected on admission, through interviews with a questionnaire. HPV detection and genotyping was performed using the INNO-LIPA HPV Genotyping Extra © kit (FujirebioEurope, Ghent, Belgium). Results: 202 women aged 18 to 84 years were included in the study. The prevalence of HPV infection was 38.6% (78/202). Participants who presented cytological changes had a higher prevalence of HPV infection (p = 0.001). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV 52, 58, 18, 16, 70. The mean age of the patients was 43.2 years. The prevalence of cytological changes was 6%, and the most prevalent changes were low-grade squamous lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous lesions (HSIL). From the results obtained, there was a high prevalence of HPV infection in the analyzed population. Conclusion: It was found that women with cytological changes have a higher prevalence of HPV and the most prevalent genotypes in the studied population are not prevented by the anti-HPV vaccine currently available. These results emphasize the need for broader studies that assess the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the anti-HPV vaccine in the medium and long term.