Caracterização do balanço de energia na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ) através de dados de imagens LANDSAT
The knowledge of energy balance is fundamental for understanding advances of urban areas. The objective of this work is to estimate and analyze surface energy balance components at the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ) through remote sensing data, namely TM, ETM +, OLI and TIRS sensors on-board Landsat-5, 7 and 8 satellites, respectively. Heat fluxes were obtained with the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) that uses as input remote sensing and meteorological information. The heat fluxes analysis were performed based on images in the decades of 80, 90, 2000 and 2010. The meteorological data were obtained from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) which contains weather stations distributed over MARJ. Among with the output data from SEBAL, a Land cover map was produced using the software Ecognition 8.9 to characterize the fluxes in three different surfaces: Urban, Soil, Vegetation and Water. SEBAL has produced consistent results showing lower latent heat flux values on the urban class and higher values on the vegetation class for all the decades. On the other hand, sensible and soil heat fluxes were always higher on urban areas as expected. Temporally, it is possible to observe in the land cover an evolution of urban areas over the four decades, advancing to the metropolitan north, east and west areas.