A desconcentração da população urbana nas cidades paraenses: geoinformação no estudo do descompasso entre o crescimento da população e da extensão de áreas urbanas
Trends of urbanization and cities growth in the Brazilian Amazon are associated with economic activities that reflect the pressure from international markets on trading of export products. Current economic activities define the shape of the land cover, urban sprawl and also how fast a city grows. Where land cover change and local elite authors promote land commodification, it will also cause urban space remodel, as consequence, altering urban population density. This paper aims to study the evolution of urbanized areas and the relationship with population growth, using remote sensing data and geoinformation techniques to identify variations in population density. Eight municipalities in the southwestern of Para state were selected as study area: Santarém, Medicilândia, Uruará, Placas, Rurópolis, Aveiro, Belterra e Trairão. TerraClass land cover mapping for 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to evaluate the "urban area" class evolution, and IBGE census and estimated population data was used for population counts of the same period. Using GIS and geographical data base for the spatial analysis, we calculate the urban demographic density of the municipalities. The results were validated based on field work data, characterizing urban sprawl by new urbanized allotments, housing estates, condominiums and informal spontaneous occupation. It was observed an unexpected general decrease of urban demographic density values along these years: urban areas increased faster than urban population. The resulted typology of urban population density for Amazon municipalities provides information that will support studies about underlying economic factors of the urbanization, and further urban planning discussions.