Vegetable oil addition in powdered milk – a preliminary regioespecific approach by 13C NMR

Vol 2, 2023 - 161507
Oral and Poster
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Food fraud is a significant public health and food security concern. Among food products most commonly associated with fraud, milk ranked second based on scientific articles published between 1980 and 2010 [1]. However, even in the last decade, frauds involving dairy products continue to be prominent [2,3]. In the case of non-dairy fat addition, the literature reports instances of fraudulent inclusion of vegetable oils [4], and even animal fats such as lard [5]. Despite the existence of official methods for detecting adulterants and contaminants, the emergence of increasingly sophisticated adulteration practices highlights the need for continuous study and development of new detection methods. In this context, the literature has consistently proposed the use of novel techniques for identifying various types of adulteration in dairy products. However, there is still a need for methodologies to determine the purity of dairy fats. Therefore, this work demonstrates the potential of 13C NMR spectroscopy for assessing the regiospecific distribution of carbonyls in triacylglycerides present in dairy fats to detect the addition of vegetable oils in powdered milk samples. Authentic samples with and without the addition of vegetable oil were used to investigate the chemical profile of triacylglyceride carbonyls. Preliminary results obtained through semiquantitative 13C NMR analysis indicate that the PUFA content at the sn-1,3 and sn-2 positions is more informative than the butyric acid content alone. Chemometric and relative proportion analyses are currently underway to subsequently compare suspected and/or commercial powdered milk samples.

[1] Moore et al. Journal of Food Science 77(4): 118-126, 2012.
[2] Rysova et al. J. Dairy Sci. 104: 9583–9595, 2021.
[3] Li et al. Int. Dairy J. 121: 105117, 2021.
[4] Nurseitova et al. J. Dairy Sci. 102: 7723–7733, 2019.
[5] Fadzillah et al. Int. J. Food Prop. 20(9): 2147-2156, 2017.


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  • 1 Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul - INQUI
  • 2 Polícia Federal
  • 3 MAPA - Ministério da Agrigultura e Pecuária
Food Fraud; dairy fats; milk