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The COVID-19 health crisis has put to the test Latin America’s already precarious social protection systems. This paper comparatively examines what type of social protection has been provided, by whom, and to what extent migrant and refugee populations have been included in these programmes in seven countries of the region during the COVID-19 pandemic, between March and December 2020. We develop a typology of models of social protection highlighting the assemblages of actors, different modes of protection and the emerging migrants’ subjectification in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecua- dor, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay in relation to Non-Contributory Social Transfer (NCST) programmes and other actions undertaken by state and non-state actors. The analysis is based on 85 semi-structured interviews with representatives of national and local governments, International Organisations, Civil Society Organisations, and migrant-led organisations across 16 cities, and a systematic review of regulatory frameworks in the country-case studies. The proposed typology shows broad heterogeneity and com- plexity regarding different degrees of inclusion of migrant and refugee populations, particularly in pre-existing and new NCST programmes. These actions are furthering notions of migrant protection that are contingent and crisis-driven, imposing temporal limitations that often selectively exclude migrants based on legal status. It also brings to the fore the path-dependent nature of policies and practices of exclusion/inclusion in the region, which impact on migrants’ effective access to social and economic rights, while shaping the broader dynamics of migration governance in the region.

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  • 1 Queen Margaret University
  • 2 Universidad de la República
  • 3 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
  • 4 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)
  • 5 Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO), Ecuador
  • 6 Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • 7 Universidad de Sevilla
  • 8 Pontificia Universi- dad Católica del Perú (PUCP)
  • 9 Programa de Población - Universidad de la República
Eje Temático
  • 7.3 Estrategias individuales y colectivas para mitigar el impacto de la Pandemia sobre las condiciones de vida
Palabras Clave
Latin America
Social Protection