Influence of environmental characteristics on the development of fungal communities of different genera

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Abstract

The biochemical and physico-chemical properties of the soil are important factors for the growth and development of microbial communities. These in turn are sensitive to small changes in these variables, which can cause an imbalance in the variety and diversity of species, interfering in the development of the entire ecosystem. Soil microfauna is responsible for processes such as debris degradation, nutrient mineralization and immobilization, the carbon cycling cycle and the increased availability of elements important for plant growth. Considering the importance of microbial communities, the present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the soil properties of a native area, an eucalyptus area and a pasture area on fungal growth in the winter and summer periods. Biochemical and physico-chemical analyses were performed to evaluate the quality of the collected soils as well as isolation and identification of the present fungal species. The fungi were identified by the microculture technique, by evaluating characteristics such as the presence and shape of conidia, size, color and relief of the colony. For statistical analysis, a distance-based redundancy test (db-RDA) and the variance inflation factor (VIF) method were used. During the summer, 207 fungi were isolated, while in winter 58 individuals were sampled, with a reduction of about 72% compared to the two seasons. The genera found were Aspergillus, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Isaria, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Scedosporium e Verticillium. After statistical analysis of the data, it was found that 63% of fungal variability was explained by the relationship with environmental soil variations. The Trichoderma genus had a negative correlation with high manganese and boron concentrations, being less present in soils with these characteristics, as the growth of non-niger Aspergillus was favorable under these conditions. Fusarium was the only genus that had a positive relationship with high copper concentrations. Regarding temperature variations, Isaria had its concentration reduced in the cold period, as well as Aspergillus and Fusarium. Statistical analysis showed that the pattern of diversity found in the winter and summer period is entirely distinct, exposing that each period presents a different microbiome configuration. It is concluded that the soil properties and environmental configuration around the studied ambient influence the fungal communities´ development, favoring the growth of some species according to the availability of nutrients and edaphic characteristics.

Institutions
  • 1 Universidade do Vale do Taquari, Univates / Universidade do Vale do Taquari
Track
  • Microbiologia Ambiental
Keywords
fungi
MICROORGANISMS
physico-chemical analysis
Microbiomes